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The Republican Party criticized the hotline in its 1964 national platform; it said the Kennedy administration had "sought accommodations with Communism without adequate safeguards and compensating gains for freedom. The cable was also used for the ordinary national telephone service. via London, Copenhagen, Stockholm and Helsinki to Moscow.

It has alienated proven allies by opening a 'hot line' first with a sworn enemy rather than with a proven friend, and in general pursued a risky path such as it began at Munich a quarter century ago."In Finland there are still several signs marking the cable's location. The first generation of the hotline used two full-time duplex telegraph circuits. TAT-1, the first submarine transatlantic telephone cable carried messages from Washington to London.

A secondary radio line for back-up and service messages linked Washington and Moscow via Tangier.

This network was originally built by Harris Corporation.

Although in popular culture it is known as the "red telephone", the hotline was never a telephone line, and no red phones were used.

The first implementation used Teletype equipment, and shifted to fax machines in 1986.

Washington sent Moscow the text: "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog's back 1234567890".

This included all the Latin alphabet, as well as all Arabic numerals and the apostrophe, to test that the keyboard and printer were working correctly.

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The countries also agreed for the first time when the line should be used.It continues to use the two satellite links but a fiber optic cable replaced the old back-up cable.Commercial software is used for both chat and email: chat to coordinate operations, and email for actual messages. The first message transmitted over the hotline was on August 30, 1963.In addition, Parade magazine editor Jess Gorkin personally badgered 1960 presidential candidates John F. Objections from others in the State Department, the U. During the standoff, official diplomatic messages typically took six hours to deliver; unofficial channels, such as via television network correspondents, had to be used too as they were quicker.Kennedy and Richard Nixon, and buttonholed the Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev during a U. During the crisis, the United States took nearly twelve hours to receive and decode Nikita Khrushchev's 3,000-word initial settlement message – a dangerously long time. White House advisers thought faster communications could have averted the crisis, and resolved it quicker.

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