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Coal is nearly pure carbon and petroleum is a mixture of hydrocarbons.By the end of the Twentieth Century, humans were adding carbon from fossil fuels to the atmosphere at a rate of about 10 billion tonnes per year (10 kg) a few years into the Twenty-first Century.
Most carbon consists of the isotopes carbon 12 and carbon 13, which are very stable.
Potassium-argon dating is used to determine the age of igneous rocks based on the ratio of an unstable isotope of potassium to that of argon.
Potassium is a common element found in many minerals.
These highly energetic nuclear bullets wreak havoc on the atoms in the upper atmosphere: tearing electrons from their orbitals and setting them free, knocking neutrons and protons from the tight confines of the nucleus and setting them free, generating x-rays and gamma rays as they decelerate, and creating exotic particles like muons and pions directly from their excessive kinetic energy.
These are also highly energetic and will ionize atoms, transmute nuclei, and generate x-rays themselves.