Bertram boltwood radiometric dating
Today, many of these same chemical separation techniques are being used by nuclear chemists to clean up radioactive wastes resulting from the fifty-year production of nuclear weapons and to treat wastes derived from the production of nuclear power.
In 1940, at the University of California in Berkeley, Edwin Mc Millan and Philip Abelson produced the first manmade element, neptunium (Np), by the bombardment of uranium with low energy neutrons from a nuclear accelerator.
Unable to interpret these findings, Hahn asked Lise Meitner, a physicist and former colleague, to propose an explanation for his observations.
Meitner and her nephew, Otto Frisch, showed that it was possible for the uranium nucleus to be split into two smaller nuclei by the neutrons, a process that they termed " fission ." The discovery of nuclear fission eventually led to the development of nuclear weapons and, after World War II, the advent of nuclear power to generate electricity.
Marie Curie was the founder of the field of nuclear chemistry.
Shortly thereafter, Glenn Seaborg, Joseph Kennedy, Arthur Wahl, and Mc Millan made the element plutonium by bombarding uranium targets with deuterons, particles derived from the heavy isotope of hydrogen, deuterium ( H). Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology of the American Chemical Society.
Both Mc Millan and Seaborg recognized that the chemical properties of neptunium and plutonium did not resemble those of rhenium and osmium, as many had predicted, but more closely resembled the chemistry of uranium, a fact that led Seaborg in 1944 to propose that the transuranic elements were part of a new group of elements called the actinide series that should be placed below the lanthanide series on the periodic chart.
As early as 1907 Bertram Boltwood had used the discovery of radioactive decay laws by Ernest Rutherford and Frederick Soddy to ascribe an age of over two billion years to a uranium mineral. Rydberg, J.; Liljenzin, J.-O.; and Choppin, Gregory R.
In 1947 Willard Libby at the University of Chicago used the decay of C decays at a known rate, enabling a date for the carbon-containing relic to be calculated.