19th century busts parian porcelain dating

Potters either made relief ornamentation by hand or in a mold.They left most Parian in its natural, creamy white state, but applied background colors, usually shades of blue, to contrast with the relief motifs.

Because the matte surface of the material attracted dirt, which was difficult to remove, makers protected much of the Parian made here and abroad with a smear glaze, achieved by chemicals added to the kiln in much the same way that they add salt to a kiln of stoneware.

Consistent with English counterparts of the mid-1840s through the 1850s, relief molding on Bennington pitchers and vases usually consisted of the naturalistically rendered plant forms of the Rococo-revival style.

Unfortunately, the factory closed in the Spring of 1858 due to the high cost of labor, the high losses by breakage, and the rough competition posed by cheaper imported articles.

They poured liquid porcelain, or slip, into a mold and allowed it to harden enough to coat the walls of the mold.

They then poured out the excess, creating a thin-walled, hollow form.

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